Winnipeg Architecture Foundation



Canadian Grain Commission Building

Address:303 Main Street
Architects:Smith Carter Parkin
Contractors:Poole Construction Limited

More Information

This structure was built to house the federal department responsible for the regulation of the grain inspection industry as well as the Canadian International Grains Institute. The building stands as a notable example of a Canadian skyscraper displaying Brutalist elements.

Among this address’s Brutalist attributes are the use of pre-cast concrete (mixed with Manitoba limestone aggregate) and its top-heavy silhouette. This feature is the root of the building’s sometime nickname “the mushroom building.” Such an effect recalls Milan’s 1958 Torre Velasca by BBPR Architects, a notable example of the multifarious nature of post-war modernism. This detail also lends the Canadian Grain Commission office block a faint echo of a sheaf of wheat. Another unusual feature related to this approach is the building’s “extended cap,” space between the upper and lower floors devoted to housing specialized mechanical equipment used to transport grain to an upper level flourmill and test brewery.

Of this work architect Ernest Smith stated that: “Mixing two different functions in a vertical building is difficult. Normally construction would be separated horizontally. In this case, we worked out two separate modules for offices and lab space, [and] found we needed greater depth in the lab and rationalised the present form.”

At the time of construction moving the Grain Commission into this new building and out of smaller quarters in the Exchange District Grain Exchange Building was seen as “an important symbolic step in re-establishing the prestige and credibility of the Commission.” Other federal organizations have, over the years, also been given space in the building, including the Departments of Agriculture, Labour, Health and Welfare, Consumer Corporate Affairs, the Secretary of State and the Court of Canadian Citizenship.

The Canadian Grain Commission building has an aesthetic relationship with the neighbouring Depression-era Federal Building, located to the south across William Stephenson Way. This connection is manifested in effects of scale as well as in a similarity of colour and tone.

Notably, the sculpture in the building’s plaza, Number One Northern by John Nugent, was considered very controversial when installed in 1976 and was removed in 1978. It was later reinstalled, in 1997.

Design Characteristics

  • Brutalist design
  • Use of pre-cast concrete
Top-heavy silhouette

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